III. PHYSICS TOPICS

 

  1. Inquiry, Reflection, and Social Implications
  2. Motions of Objects
  3. Forces and Motion
  4. Forms of Energy and Energy Transformations

 

Additional Sites for Physics

 

P4. Forms of Energy and Energy Transformations

High School

P4.1 Energy Transfer
Moving objects and waves transfer energy from one location to another. They also transfer energy to objects during interactions (e.g., sunlight transfers energy to the ground when it warms the ground; sunlight also transfers energy from the Sun to the Earth).

  1. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) New
    Outstanding! Oceanographers, submariners, whales, dolphins, seals, in short, all working or living in the ocean use sound to sense their surroundings, to communicate, and to navigate. This web site will introduce you to the science and uses of sound in the sea. Includes a sound gallery of 60+ sound recordings and vibration patterns of various ocean creatures to show how ocean depth, temperature and salinity affect sound quality.
  2. KEEP Energy – Energy Transfer New
    This site covers energy transfer as a way to do work. A number of topics related to energy and work are covered at this site.
  3. What Type of Energy is it?
    This site explores the question: "How many different types of energy are there?"  There are even links to energy conservations in nature and photosynthesis.

P4.1x Energy Transfer — Work
Work is the amount of energy transferred during an interaction. In mechanical systems, work is the amount of energy transferred as an object is moved through a distance, W = F d, where d is in the same direction as F. The total work done on an object depends on the net force acting on the object and the object’s displacement.

  1. KEEP Energy – Energy Transfer New
    This site covers energy transfer as a way to do work. A number of topics related to energy and work are covered at this site.
  2. Physics Energy – Work New
    This site is from BITESIZE Revison from the BBC. The site covers how energy is used to do work. When a force moves something the energy transfer is called work.
  3. Zona Land - Work New
    This site explains the nature of work. This site explains the formula for doing work. Several animations show examples of how work is the result of force causing a displacement of an object. In Zona Land you will find educational and entertaining items pertaining to physics, to the mathematical sciences, and to mathematics in general.

P4.2 Energy Transformation
Energy is often transformed from one form to another. The amount of energy before a transformation is equal to the amount of energy after the transformation. In most energy transformations, some energy is converted to thermal energy.

  1. Energy Changes Make Things Happen
    This website does a good job of both providing an overview of the energy transformations involved in chemical, physical, and nuclear changes and it provides links that allow you to investigate specific types of energy transformations more thoroughly.
  2. Renewable Resources in the U.S. Electricity Supply
    This would be a good site for student reports on renewable resources used for electricity production. This site provides general information.

P4.3 Kinetic and Potential Energy
Moving objects have kinetic energy. Objects experiencing a force may have potential energy due to their relative positions (e.g., lifting an object or stretching a spring, energy stored in chemical bonds). Conversions between kinetic and gravitational potential energy are common in moving objects. In frictionless systems, the decrease in gravitational potential energy is equal to the increase in kinetic energy or vice versa.

  1. Amusment Park Physics - Rollercoaster
    Using their knowledge of potential and kinetic energy conversions, students can build the ideal rollercoaster, or can they?  That is the challenge!   This rollercoaster is just one of many stops in the Amusement Park if you care to seek more science thrills.
  2. Bang! Boing! Pop! Energy New
    This site covers how we can calculate kinetic and potential energy using formulas. This site is a great site about energy, and covers a variety of energy topics.
  3. Energy Transformations on a Roller Coaster
    Contains a nice animation of a roller coaster along with graphics showing PE, KE and Total Mechanical Energy. A textual discussion is included which is aimed primarily at physics students, but most will understand the underlying concepts.
  4. Fear of Physics, how to make a roller coaster work
    This site lets your students use three different tracks to make a roller coaster and see how high they have to start their coaster in order to make the ride work. It also has 2 3-dimensional tracks.
  5. Physics Classroom - "Work and Energy: Multimedia Physics Studio"
    Animations of roller coasters, downhill skiers and pendula are used to illustrate the relationship between the concepts of work and energy.
  6. Roller Coasters Activity
    Very good activity on potential and kinetic energy, cooperative learning and measurement, where students build a roller coaster.

P4.3x Kinetic and Potential Energy — Calculations
The kinetic energy of an object is related to the mass of an object and its speed: KE = 1/2 mv2.

  1. Bang! Boing! Pop! Energy New
    This site covers how we can calculate kinetic and potential energy using formulas. This site is a great site about energy, and covers a variety of energy topics.
  2. Applications of Work-Energy : Potential Energy New
    This site gives several examples of how kinetic and potential energy can be measured and calulated.
  3. Energy and Work New
    Thinkquest's Fizzics Fizzle does a good job of explaning the formula related to how to measure energy and work.
  4. Physics Classroom - "Work, Energy, and Power"
    Concepts of work, kinetic energy and potential energy are discussed; these concepts are combined with the work-energy theorem to provide a convenient means of analyzing an object or system of objects moving between an initial and final state.
  5. How Force, Power, Torque and Energy Work New
    The "How Stuff Works" article has a good section on how force, power, torque and energy work.
  6. Roller Coasters Activity
    Very good activity on potential and kinetic energy, cooperative learning and measurement, where students build a roller coaster.

P4.4 Wave Characteristics
Waves (mechanical and electromagnetic) are described by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed.

  1. APS Project Sol
    Students can take a virtual field trip into the inner workings of a photovoltaic (PV) cell all the way down to an atomic level. There is also a lot of other information about solar energy, electricity, fuels, and their sources. There are also some very good links to other solar sites.
  2. Interactive Science Animations of Sound and Light
    Outstanding: This website allows students to interact with animations that demonstrate how light and sound waves travel through different materials. It also demonstrates how sound is measured.
  3. Parts of a Wave
    This site is an interactive demonstration where properties (amplitude, wavelength, crest and trough, and frequency) of waves can be changed by using a slide.
  4. Physics Classroom - "Waves"
    These multimedia animations help you visualize and understand major physics concepts. The animations cover common physics principles discussed in a first year physics course.
  5. Physics Classroom - "Waves: Multimedia Physics Studio"
    Outstanding! These multimedia animations help you visualize and understand major physics concepts. The animations cover common physics principles discussed in a first year physics course.
  6. Speed of Light
    Outstanding! - This site gives your students a real understanding about the speed of light including, wavelength changes and units.  The simulation is very helpful for the students.
  7. String Wave
    Very cool site! This site allows the student to play with a string wave without the mess. It is also much tidier than a real lab demo. It shows what effects tension and dampening have on waves…and it allows for the student to see interference of waves by making several at a time.
  8. Wave Links
    Many links to wave websites that very from lesson narratives to interactive applets. Math and conceptual applications are found throughout.

P4.4x Wave Characteristics — Calculations
Wave velocity, wavelength, and frequency are related by v = lf. The energy transferred by a wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude of vibration and its frequency.

  1. Short Summary of Quantum Physics: Quantum Theory / Wave Mechanics New These Quantum Physics pages show how this new understanding of physical reality (that all light and matter interactions are wave interactions in Space) explains and solves the central problems of Quantum Theory.

P4.5 Mechanical Wave Propagation
Vibrations in matter initiate mechanical waves (e.g., water waves, sound waves, seismic waves), which may propagate in all directions and decrease in intensity in proportion to the distance squared for a point source. Waves transfer energy from one place to another without transferring mass.

  1. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) New
    Outstanding! Oceanographers, submariners, whales, dolphins, seals, in short, all working or living in the ocean use sound to sense their surroundings, to communicate, and to navigate. This web site will introduce you to the science and uses of sound in the sea. Includes a sound gallery of 60+ sound recordings and vibration patterns of various ocean creatures to show how ocean depth, temperature and salinity affect sound quality.
  2. Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    Outstanding! This site includes an equation for calculating the change in frequency of a sound wave due to the doppler effect. More importantly it shows graphics to explain the phenomenon of the doppler effect, and it also gives illustrations and a movie of the effects of the surrounding air when a plane reaches and surpasses the sound barrier above water in moist air. This movie is outstanding.
  3. Fear of Physics - Introduction to Sound
    This site uses animations to demonstrate sound waves and how we hear.
  4. Interactive Science Animations of Sound and Light
    Outstanding: This website allows students to interact with animations that demonstrate how light and sound waves travel through different materials. It also demonstrates how sound is measured.
  5. Physics Classroom - "Sound Waves & Music"
    The nature of sound as a longitudinal, mechanical pressure wave is explained and the properties of sound are discussed. Wave principles of resonance and standing waves are applied in an effort to analyze the physics of musical instruments. Lessons include; The Nature of a Sound Wave, Sound Properties and Their Perception, Behavior of Sound Waves, Resonance and Standing Waves, Musical Instruments.
  6. Physics Classroom - "Waves: Multimedia Physics Studio"
    Outstanding! These multimedia animations help you visualize and understand major physics concepts. The animations cover common physics principles discussed in a first year physics course.
  7. Play an e-Piano!
    Play an "e-piano" and see the sound waves converted to transverse waves on an oscilloscope. This virtual reality Java piano lets you play the piano and have a little fun while learning the relationship between the sounds, music theory, musical scales, and the underlying math and physics of how sounds are produced and perceived.
  8. Science Explorer: Sound
    This site describes sound waves and has a link to "internet activities which provides exploration into various characteristics of sound including the Doppler Effect, as well as an on-line "self-test".
  9. Science of Sound: Hands on Activities
    The site contains labs to investigate the properties of sound. Example of some labs are: Making a Model Eardrum, Slinky Soundwaves, Making Sounds with String, Air and Strings: Human Vocal Cords, Balloons: Vibrations through air.
  10. Sound Waves: What Do They Look Like?
    Good discription of sound and its characteristics with pictures.  Also links at the bottom of the page to the "Science of Sound" and "How We Hear".
  11. The Science of Light
    Introduction to how we see colors with a link to Light in Color. Using two colored light sources students can move them to produce different colored and shaped shadows.

P4.6 Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves (e.g., radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-ray) are produced by changing the motion (acceleration) of charges or by changing magnetic fields. Electromagnetic waves can travel through matter, but they do not require a material medium. (That is, they also travel through empty space.) All electromagnetic waves move in a vacuum atthe speed of light. Types of electromagnetic radiation are distinguished from each other by their wavelength and energy.

  1. Science Explorer: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    This site describes the electromagnetic spectrum with a link to "internet activities" which provides explorations into characteristics of electromagnetic waves.
  2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    This web site presents information about our ability to see visible light waves. This site provides general information.

P4.6x Electromagnetic Propagation
Modulated electromagnetic waves can transfer information from one place to another (e.g., televisions, radios, telephones, computers and other information technology devices). Digital communication makes more efficient use of the limited electromagnetic spectrum, is more accurate than analog transmission, and can be encrypted to provide privacy and security.

  1. Color and Color Television
    Outstanding - This site has great interactive possibilities for the students in mixing colored light.  The table of contents will also get you to a great activity on the comparison between laser light and different light sources and their coresponding frequency and wavelength.
  2. Understanding Light
    Teacher lessons for laboratory activites that will teach the students how we see different colors. Has a nice activity that explains to the student how a T.V. or computer monitor works. Includes all answer keys.

P4.r7x Quantum Theory of Waves (recommended)
Electromagnetic energy is transferred on the atomic scale in discrete amounts called quanta. The equation E = h f quantifies the relationship between the energy transferred and the frequency, where h is Planck’s constant. (recommended)

  1. Short Summary of Quantum Physics: Quantum Theory / Wave Mechanics New
    These Quantum Physics pages show how that all light and matter interactions are wave interactions in Space explains and solves the central problems of Quantum Theory.

P4.8 Wave Behavior — Reflection and Refraction
The laws of reflection and refraction describe the relationships between incident and reflected/refracted waves.

  1. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) New
    Outstanding! Oceanographers, submariners, whales, dolphins, seals, in short, all working or living in the ocean use sound to sense their surroundings, to communicate, and to navigate. This web site will introduce you to the science and uses of sound in the sea. Includes a sound gallery of 60+ sound recordings and vibration patterns of various ocean creatures to show how ocean depth, temperature and salinity affect sound quality.
  2. Physics Classroom - Reflection, Refraction and Diffractions New
    This site has a complete explaination of wave behavior. The topics of diffraction, interference, and refraction are explained.

P4.8x Wave Behavior — Diffraction, Interference, and Refraction
Waves can bend around objects (diffraction). They also superimpose on each other and continue their propagation without a change in their original properties (interference). When refracted, light follows a defined path.

  1. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) New
    Outstanding! Oceanographers, submariners, whales, dolphins, seals, in short, all working or living in the ocean use sound to sense their surroundings, to communicate, and to navigate. This web site will introduce you to the science and uses of sound in the sea. Includes a sound gallery of 60+ sound recordings and vibration patterns of various ocean creatures to show how ocean depth, temperature and salinity affect sound quality.
  2. Physics Classroom - Reflection, Refraction and Diffractions New
    This site has a complete explaination of wave behavior. The topics of diffraction, interference, and refraction are explained.
  3. Physics Classroom - Interference of Waves New
    This site explains the nature of wave interference.

P4.9 Nature of Light
Light interacts with matter by reflection, absorption, or transmission.

  1. About Rainbows
    This site has information about how light is diverted by water droplets to form a rainbow. Author Donald Ahrens in this text Meteorology Today describes a rainbow as "one of the most spectacular light shows observed on Earth." The traditional rainbow is sunlight spread out into its spectrum of colors and diverted to the eye of the observer by water droplets. The "bow" part of the word describes the fact that the rainbow is a group of nearly circular arcs of color having a common center.
  2. Center for Science Education: Light Tour
    An excellent interactive site focusing on the behavior of light. Areas covered are wavelength, amplitude, electromagnetic spectrum, relationships between light waves and objects of various sizes, and how to recognize the type of light in different spectra.
  3. Color Links
    Many links to color sites such as subtractive colors (pigments) and additive colors. Physics of rainbows and spectral lines are also excellent sites.
  4. Exploratorium Science "Snacks", Colored Shadow Lab
    Simple lab used to show that shadows aren't always black and white.When two different-colored lights shine on the same spot on a white screen, the light reflecting from that spot to your eyes is called an additive mixture because it contains the colors from both lights. This lab is a very simple way to teach about about human color perception.
  5. Human Vision and Color
    This site explains why we can see different colors.
  6. Interactive Science Animations of Sound and Light
    Outstanding: This website allows students to interact with animations that demonstrate how light and sound waves travel through different materials. It also demonstrates how sound is measured.
  7. Light Links
    Outstanding! Provides many links to light websites that very from lesson narratives to interactive applets. Math and conceptual applications are found throughout.
  8. Physics Classroom - "Light Waves & Color"
    The behavior of light waves is introduced and discussed; polarization, color, diffraction and interference are introduced as supporting evidence of the wave nature of light. Color perception is discussed in detail. Lessons include: How Do We Know Light is a Wave and Color and Vision.
  9. Physics Classroom - "Waves: Multimedia Physics Studio"
    Outstanding! These multimedia animations help you visualize and understand major physics concepts. The animations cover common physics principles discussed in a first year physics course.
  10. Teacher's Lab - The Science of Light
    This site includes basic information about light and color, as well as, interactive activities that are a lot of fun.
  11. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    This web site presents information about our ability to see visible light waves. This site provides general information.
  12. The Science of Light
    Introduction to how we see colors with a link to Light in Color. Using two colored light sources students can move them to produce different colored and shaped shadows.
  13. World of Color
    This site allows the student to work interactivally with the three primary colors and find the results of various combinations of colors and intensities.

P4.r9x Nature of Light — Wave-Particle Nature (recommended)
The dual wave-particle nature of matter and light is the foundation for modern physics. (recommended)

  1. The Wave - Particle Duality New
    The site follows the people who developed the theories answering the questions: What is light?, What's its structure?, and What does it consist of ? This site is a ThinkQuest site.
  2. Wave Particle Duality New
    This site has a series of pages on the nature of particles and waves and their similarities and differences. The site provides a number of questions for students as they progress through the activity.

P4.10 Current Electricity — Circuits
Current electricity is described as movement of charges. It is a particularly useful form of energy because it can be easily transferred from place to place and readily transformed by various devices into other forms of energy (e.g., light, heat, sound, and motion). Electrical current (amperage) in a circuit is determined by the potential difference (voltage) of the power source and the resistance of the loads in the circuit.

  1. Basic Circuits
    Great site for finding resistance, current, and voltage of parallel circuits, series circuits, or a combination of both types of circuits.  Basic formulas are given as well as drawing of each type of circuits which includes the direction the current flows.  This site also includes a worksheet that can be printed to practice finding resistance, current, and voltage that can be helpful for students.
  2. This is an interactive website that allows children to investigate whether common objects would serve as conductors in a simple electrical circuit. A quiz is included.
  3. BBC Science: Changing Circuits
    This is an interactive website that allows children to explore the properties of electricity using a simple electrical circuit. A quiz is included.
  4. Circuit Builder
    This is an interactive java applet that allows a student to make a circuit and see if it works.
  5. Ciruits
    This site discusses the advantages and disadvantages of parallel and series ciruits.  While discussion both types of  circuits there also are drawings and a short quiz.
  6. D.C. Circuits New
    Starts with circuit symbols and ends with Kirchhoff's Laws
  7. Electrical Circuits
    This site contains some general information and a list of 6 different activities dealing with circuits. The activities are geared for 4th, 5th and above. Any of them could be modified to a different grade level. All of these are lesson plans.
  8. Electricity: Simple Circuits
    This teacher created site deals with basic electricity concepts, including safety. The tasks and information are in the upper elementary to middle school range. There are many on the computer and in the lab activities. There is also a teacher note page with background and standards.
  9. Electricity Lessons and Quizzes
    Explores the ideas of electricity taking a look at the differences between direct and alternating current, calculations and uses of electricity. As with the entire physics website found in the general science part of the MASER site, this portion includes quizzes on all sections.
  10. Electric Generator and Ohm's Law Applets
    Shows a simulation of an AC electric generator and a DC electric generator under AC/DC generator action. It also give the student the ability to change values of voltage, current and resistance in the Ohm's Law section. Many other interesting electricity and magnetism interactive applets are located here.
  11. Frank Potter's Science Gems: Physical Science Electricity
    Specific site from the Frank potter website in the general science category. Go under Physical Science Part II. Electricity and magnetism, then under "MINIMUM" Level: 9th grade. The links to Electricity from the learn physics today tutorial, electric generator, and charged particles in a box are all nice links to visit.
  12. LC Physical Science
    This site has interactive lessons about electricity, circuits, and circuit diagrams.
  13. Resistors Applet
    This applet allows a student to work with different resistors in parallel and series, to determine the total resistance of the circuit.
  14. ReviseWise Science: Physical Processes: Electricity This is a good interactive site to help students understand circuits. Students "build" circuits with given materials and then decide if the circuits will work. Follow through the slides, then test your knowledge. Also includes a fact sheet and test.
  15. Tech Topics: Electricity
    This is an animated interactive site about electricity, circuits, and conductivity. Includes information about parallel and series circuits.
  16. The Blobz Guide to Electric Circuits
    Outstanding! - This is an extremely well put together site dealing with electric circuit basics. It includes an abundance of great animation and activities that enable students to test their conductors and circuits. Along with the activities, there are quizzes with instant feedback. The prompts and menus are very easy to follow. Grade level use would be from elementary to lower middle school. The site does require Macromedia Flash Player.

P4.10x Current Electricity — Ohm’s Law, Work, and Power
In circuits, the relationship between electric current, I, electric potential difference, V, and resistance, R, is quantified by V = I R (Ohm’s Law). Work is the amount of energy transferred during an interaction. In electrical systems, work is done when charges are moved through the circuit. Electric power is the amount of work done by an electric current in a unit of time, which can be calculated using P = I V.

  1. Applied Science - Electric and Magnetic Forces
    This is generally a resource site, but it has some really nice interactive slide shows about electricity and magnetism, including their history. There are lessons with materials, background, procedures, questions, etc.
  2. Electricity Lessons and Quizzes
    Explores the ideas of electricity taking a look at the differences between direct and alternating current, calculations and uses of electricity. As with the entire physics website found in the general science part of the MASER site, this portion includes quizzes on all sections.
  3. Electric Generator
    The information on this website gives the student or teacher knowledge about how to build a simple electric generator. This will give the students knowledge about how they work and their simplistic design.
  4. Electric Generator and Ohm's Law Applets
    Shows a simulation of an AC electric generator and a DC electric generator under AC/DC generator action. It also give the student the ability to change values of voltage, current and resistance in the Ohm's Law section. Many other interesting electricity and magnetism interactive applets are located here.
  5. Electric Motor
    The benchmark, of course, covers the idea of an electric generator, but this is also of some value and certainly related and important. The student can see the principles behind an electric motor, and the teacher can related this to the benchmark.
  6. Frank Potter's Science Gems: Physical Science Electricity
    Specific site from the Frank potter website in the general science category. Go under Physical Science Part II. Electricity and magnetism, then under "MINIMUM" Level: 9th grade. The links to Electricity from the learn physics today tutorial, electric generator, and charged particles in a box are all nice links to visit.
  7. How It Works - Energy Quest
    This portion of this website deals with how common devices such as an air conditioner or toaster work. For each device there is a text section and a diagram as well as other links.
  8. How Stuff Work
    Any number of "How Does This Work?" questions are answered here. A universal amount of topics are covered.  Great text pictures actually go inside the item you are viewing, showing you how  it looks.
  9. Ohm's Law Applets
    This applet is an interactive activity where students are able to manipulate the number of volts and resistance needed to deliver the right number of amps to a light bulb.
  10. Simple Electric Motor
    This site provides instructions on how to build, where to get stuff, a teacher lesson plan, student instructions, and background information on building a simple electric motor. This site contains links to: How it works; Trouble shooting; build it yourself; Assembly instructions; Ordering Information; Technical information; Links; Experiments and Applications.
  11. The Atoms Family
    This site has lessons on electrical safety and static electricity.

P4.11x Heat, Temperature, and Efficiency
Heat is often produced as a by-product during energy transformations. This energy is transferred into the surroundings and is not usually recoverable as a useful form of energy. The efficiency of systems is defined as the ratio of the useful energy output to the total energy input. The efficiency of natural and human-made systems varies due to the amount of heat that is not recovered as useful work.

  1. APS Project Sol
    Students can take a virtual field trip into the inner workings of a photovoltaic (PV) cell all the way down to an atomic level. There is also a lot of other information about solar energy, electricity, fuels, and their sources. There are also some very good links to other solar sites.
  2. Convection, Conduction, and Radiation
    This site describes the mechanisms of heat transfer. In addition, there is an interactive heat game. This game quizzes the students and then responds as to whether or not their answers are correct.
  3. Greenhouse Effect
    Science project to show the greenhouse effect - energy transformation from sun to water.
  4. Heat and Temperature
    Discusses heat transfer with animations on the motion of gas molecules, relation to kinetic energy and more links.
  5. Heat Transfer Pictures
    Shows pictures and gives explanations about the three forms of heat transfer. Also, brings up interesting questions the student can explore and answer for themselves through research on other sites. Provides some math application examples for conduction and radiation.
  6. Heat Transfer Quiz
    This site provides brief narrative on convection, conduction and radiation, followed by a short quiz. There are also links to other sites referring to heat and temperature.

P4.12 Nuclear Reactions
Changes in atomic nuclei can occur through three processes: fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. Fission and fusion can convert small amounts of matter into large amounts of energy. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure. Fusion is the combination of smaller nuclei into a large nucleus and is responsible for the energy of the Sun and other stars. Radioactive decay occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust (rocks, minerals) and can be used in technological applications (e.g., medical diagnosis and treatment).

  1. Basic Nuclear Fission    
    This site describes nuclear fission, has some great animations of nuclear fission, and students can test their knowledge with a short quiz at the end.  You can also select nuclear fusion on the left side to learn about it as well.
  2. How Nuclear Power Works
    As the title indicates your students will find out how a Nuclear Power Plant functions, both an animation and live still pictures. This site also has a great animation of the induced fission of  U-235.
  3. Isotopes of Pennies
    This site provides lessons for understanding radioactivity and isotopes using pennies to represent subatomic particles.
  4. Nuclear Chemistry and the Community
    Here you can take your students through a quick tour or choose the "2 day class" tour. The expected outcome is that students can apply nuclear science to world events and begin to critically evaluate what they see, hear, and read.
  5. Nuclear Energy
    This site has a great animation of the contrast between fission and fusion. Although there are quality links throughout this tutorial, the radiation link at the bottom of the page will give students a great knowledge base to compare all three concepts.
  6. Nuclear Fusion
    This site goes into detail about nuclear fusion, and it explains it very well.
  7. Nulcear Reactor
    This site provides a visual of two different types of nuclear reactors. The students can see how the evaporation and expansion of water from the heat of the nuclear reaction is what turns the turbines attached to the generators, much like the principles of an old steam engine.
  8. Virtual Nucleartourist
    This site allows your students to find out the how, where, and why about the Nuclear Power.  Clinking on "A Quick Tour" will give your students a good place to start, but there is a lot more on this site to see, including a list of "Current Hot Topics".

P4.12x Mass and Energy
In nuclear reactions, a small amount of mass is converted to a large amount of energy, E = mc2, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. The amount of energy before and after nuclear reactions must consider mass changes as part of the energy transformation.

  1. Basic Nuclear Fission    
    This site describes nuclear fission, has some great animations of nuclear fission, and students can test their knowledge with a short quiz at the end.  You can also select nuclear fusion on the left side to learn about it as well.
  2. Nuclear Energy
    This site has a great animation of the contrast between fission and fusion. Although there are quality links throughout this tutorial, the radiation link at the bottom of the page will give students a great knowledge base to compare all three concepts.

 

 

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